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Bulgaria is an Eastern European country on the Balkan Peninsula. Its neighbors are Romania, Serbia and Monte Negro, FYR of Macedonia, Greece, and Turkey. The northern boundary goes along the Danube River to the town of Silistra. On the east of Bulgaria is the Black Sea.

Georgaphic Location of Bulgaria


Geographic coordinates: 43° 00' N, 25° 00' E

Area: 110 910 sq. m. (land: 110 550 sq. m., water: 360 sq. m.)

Land boundaries:
Total: 1,808 κμ
Boundary by country: Greece 494 km, FYR of Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Monte Negro 318 km, Turkey 240 km.

Coastline: 354 km.

Maritime Zones
Territorial zone: 24 sea miles.
Exclusive economic zone: 200 sea miles.
Territorial waters: 12 sea miles.


The climate in Northern Bulgaria is moderate continental, while the climate in Southern Bulgaria is intermediate continental tending to Mediterranean. The climate in the regions with an altitude of 1900-2000 m above sea level is mountainous and along the Black Sea coast it is maritime. The climate of the seaside regions is milder in the winter and cooler in the summer than the climate of the interior of the country. The average annual temperature is 10,50C, in winter about 0,0C (the lowest temperature - 38,30C - was measured in 1947). Average summer temperatures rarely exceed 30°C

Marked by four distinct seasons, Bulgaria enjoys a generally favorable climate that is one of the country's best features. Although located at the same latitude as southern New England, Bulgaria's climate is noticeably more temperate. Summers are typically hot and dry, but rarely oppressive, with moderate relative humidity. Winters are cold but not bitterly so. In the south and Black Sea coastal regions, Mediterranean influences temper the harsher continental climate of the interior. The country's half-dozen mountain groups also play a significant part in determining regional variances.

Relief: The relief of Bulgaria is remarkably diverse, including vast lowlands planes, low hills, high and low mountains, valleys, river basins and deep gorges. The surface structures were formed during different geological eras. Oldest in terms of geological classification are the Moezian Platform (the Danubian Hilly Plane)and the Rila Massif and the Rhodopes. The undulating system of Stara Planina and Sredna Gora mountains and the Sub-Balkan Valleys date from a later geological age. 


The average altitude of Bulgaria is 470 m. Over 2/3 of the territory is situated at an altitude of 600 m, i.e. lowlands, planes and low hills prevail. The lowlands (up to 200 m) take up 30 % of the territory, the planes and the low hills (200-600 m) - 40 %, the low mountains (600-1000 m) - 16 %, the medium high mountains (1000-1600 m) - 10 %, and the high mountains (over 1600 m) - 4 %.

Lowest point: Black Sea: 0 m.

Highest point: Mount Moussala: 2295 m. – the highest peak on the Balkan Peninsula.

Natural resources

Waters: 600 natural springs and more than 370 drilled mineral sources. Over 2000 dams.

Ores: bauxite, copper ores, lead-zinc ore, coal.

Organic resources: Lumber, herbs, mushrooms, wild berries.

Arable land: 43%
Permanent crops: 2%
Permanent pastures: 14%
Forests: 38%
Other land: 3%

Natural disasters

Floods, landslides, earthquakes.

The environment has largely improved in the 1990s with the stop of operations of large industrial plants. Current environmental issues include air pollution by industrial emissions and dust, water pollution due to the lack of purification plants, deforestation, soil poisoning.

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